For many young 4-H’ers, it’s that time of year where they are preparing to exhibit their chickens at local, county or state fairs. Whether you’re entering the show ring soon, or just think your girls could use a good washing, check out these simple tips on bathing chickens.
Caring for chickens and enjoying their beauty and eggs are part of a healthy lifestyle yet it comes with everyday responsibility. Every once in a while, a flock owner needs a vacation or weekend getaway. Ensuring that the flock is safe while its owner is gone can be challenging. There are solutions.
Many aspects of chicken care must be done daily. These include filling waterers and feeders, opening the pop hole each morning and closing it at dusk, and collecting eggs. Other tasks include fending off a predator, keeping bird’s safe during extreme weather and, rarely, caring for a sick or injured chicken,
FRIENDS, FAMILY AND NEIGHBORS
Nothing beats having friends, family or neighbors as temporary chicken caregivers. Few people have ever tended chickens. While they may be eager to fill in, they likely need training and coaching. A wise flockowner lines up substitute caregivers well before the vacation so there is plenty of time to train the sub. Having a few volunteers ready to fill in is invaluable should an unexpected trip come up at short notice.
A trusty substitute should be comfortable around the flock and know what needs to be done and where supplies are. Here are a few tips.
- Leave a cell phone number and other contact information in case the sub needs to be in touch.
- Before leaving fill all waterers and feeders.
- Post in the coop in a plastic sleeve to keep it clean a written list of daily tasks.
- Have plenty of extra feed in storage near the coop so the caretaker doesn’t have to buy any when you’re gone.
- Welcome the caregiver to take eggs home to enjoy. Leave extra egg boxes handy to make carrying them easy.
- Assure the caregiver that every once in a while, a chicken dies. Be sure he or she understands that this happens and is not his fault. Let the caregiver know how to dispose of a dead bird.There are ways to legally and safely dispose of a dead chicken. Burying is an option. Many communities allow homeowners to place dead animals in the trash if the body is placed in double or triple plastic bags. Check with your town’s sanitation department to learn the procedure. If it’s hot and trash collection won’t occur for several days it may be wise to triple bag and seal the dead hen and put her in a freezer until trash day.
- Show the caregiver how to open and latch windows in case of severe weather.
- Offer to care for their own chickens, pets, or home when they are away. If appropriate offer to pay them and bring them a small gift from the trip.
A WEEKEND GETAWAY
For a very short absence during mild weather it’s possible to set up a coop so the flock is fine without daily human attention. Having supplies on hand and the coop prepared for a couple of days absence makes leaving them untended possible even though it’s always best to have a substitute visit daily.
There are two possible problems in leaving hens without daily care. One is egg collection. Ideally eggs should be collected every day. When uncollected so many eggs can accumulate in the nest that some may break. Nests designed so eggs roll out for easy collection solve the problem. A second problem is opening and closing the pop hole. Solar or timer controlled devices can be purchased to automatically open and close the door at the proper time. Or, simply leave the hens inside for a couple of days.
Redundant waterers and feeders are important. Have at least two waterers in the coop just in case one leaks when you are gone.
Chickens should never be left untended if extreme cold or beastly heat are predicted. Cold freezes drinking water and eggs, and chickens can die if left in a stifling coop without relief.
Everyone needs to get away once in a while. With a little preparation and good friends, the flock will be healthy and productive while its owner sits on a distant beach or enjoys a weekend in the mountains.
Summer is an exciting time for your chickens, they likely have more freedom than the winter months and enjoy exploring in the warmer weather. But it can also be a time where vigilance is key as a chicken owner. The extreme temps can take a toll quickly on your feathered friends, so taking proper heat precautions is extremely important. Here are a few tips to make sure your chickens have a comfortable summer.
Signs of Heatstroke
- Lethargic and not actively moving around.
- Open beaks with wings spread out. The birds look similar to a dog that is panting.
- Little or no intake of food and water.
- Make sure your chickens always have fresh and clean water. It is a good idea to give fresh water at least every 24 hours. Stagnant and dirty water attracts mosquitos and acts as a petri dish for holding diseases. Old and lukewarm water will not be appealing to your birds and it will cause them to stop drinking, which can lead to lower egg production, forced molt, dehydration and possibly death.
- It is a good idea to put ice in your watering system. Chickens may stop consuming water if the temperature of the water rises above 55 degrees Fahrenheit.
- Have your coop in an area that is covered and protects the flock from the sun.
- Make sure the coop has several open windows that allow air to flow through the structure. Windows can be added to the coop by cutting holes in the sides of the structure and covering the holes with hardware cloth. The hardware cloth should keep predators out of the coop, but it will allow more air circulation and ventilation for the birds.
- Consider letting your flock free range in the summer. Free range chickens can have more opportunities to find shade and cool off in dust bathing areas. There are certainly risks involved in letting your chickens free range, but it can be a great option for keeping them cool in the summer time.
- Melons and squash are great treats for the summer.
- Chickens love watermelon as a treat and it naturally increases water intake, since watermelon is about 91% water.
AC for the Flock
- You can freeze gallon jugs of water and place them in and around your coop. The jugs of water can lower the temperature in the coop and perform as a makeshift air conditioner.
- A small baby pool gives chickens the option to cool off in the summer time. (You only need to fill the pool with a few inches of water).
- Purchase a mister attachment for your hose. The mister attachment can reduce the body temperature of your birds as well as the ground temperature around the coop.
- Consider placing fans in and around the coop. There are battery and electrical powered fans available at your local hardware store (make sure the fans are not close to any water, as this can potentially be a fire hazard).
It can be quite alarming when a poultry owner gets a consistent five eggs, daily, from five hens, only to find just one egg for a few days. This sudden drop in egg laying takes us all into detective mode – are they hiding the eggs? Are they sick?
Below you’ll find some of the most common reasons for decreased egg production to put your mind at ease and hopefully get your girls laying consistently again.
- Molt. At 15-18 months of age, and every year thereafter, chickens will replace their feathers. Feathers will fall out to make room for new feather growth. During this time, hens will stop laying eggs.
- Lighting. Chickens need about 15-16 hours of light per day to produce eggs. The first year, most laying breeds will lay through the winter without artificial lighting.
- Too many goodies. Think of kids, if you unleashed your kids at a buffet, and told them they could get whatever they want, most would load up at the dessert table. Your girls will do the same thing, filling up on bread, table scraps etc. they may not be getting what they need to produce eggs. This is usually a slowdown, more than a stoppage.
- Too much lovin’. One rooster can easily handle 12-18 hens. If this ratio is too low, he will over mount the girls and bare patches will appear on their backs and the backs of their heads. This stress can drop them out of production.
- Dehydration. It doesn’t take much water deprivation, especially in hot weather, to take your hens right out of production. Many times alpha hens will not allow submissive hens (bottom of the pecking order) to drink. They are attempting to “vote them off the island”, but the first thing that will happen is an egg stoppage. We recommend adding water stations during warm weather.
- Any undue stress. Maybe the coop is secure, but they are still being harassed by raccoons, neighbor’s dogs, or other predators.
- Egg eating by the hens, or theft by 2 or 4 legged scoundrels! They may be laying, but the wrong critter is getting the eggs. Believe it or not, human egg stealing is more common than people think – I’ve even seen it on a game camera.
- Change in the pecking order. Adding new hens, a new rooster or removing a hen can cause a power void and/or drama. Drama=stress=egg production drop
- Illnesses/parasites. The reasons above may likely be the cause but parasites or illness can also cause stress on a hen. We’ve got a whole section on our blog dedicated to diseases and disorders of chickens, so take a look here to learn more: http://scoopfromthecoop.nutrenaworld.com/category/diseases-and-disorders/
There are many reasons that I chose to start free ranging my chickens. I have run into some challenges along the way, but overall my experience with free range chickens is a good one. Here are a few tips in getting started!
I ALWAYS start my chicks in a safe (indoor – house, barn, garage etc.) brooder where they are offered a balanced 18% chick starter, clean water, fresh shavings, artificial heat and a safe haven from all the critters that would love to eat them. They remain in the brooder for about 6 weeks or until they are fully feathered. Weather permitting, I then move them outside to a coop where they can adjust to the elements but are still safe as they grow to full size. At this point they are able to see my other birds but cannot interact with them. This practice also allows me to keep hens from eating chick feed and chicks from eating layer feed! At 16 weeks I will switch them over to a layer diet and monitor them until I feel they are sizable enough to defend themselves against my other hens and smart enough to get away from predators.
Typically these young birds will continue to go back to the coop to roost and I will close them up every night. During this time my older hens will “shun” the new flock and in my experience for a period of time I will have two totally separate flocks. Over time, the younger birds will integrate more with my existing flock and after a while will begin to roost in the barn with the others. At that time I will close off the coop and clean it up for the next season of growing chicks. Once they are integrated with the flock all of my birds free range 24-7 and roost in my barn where I have stalls for my goats when I need to lock them up and where my livestock guardian dogs can roam underneath them to keep predators away at night. My livestock dogs are KEY to the reduced loss from night dwelling predators. If this is not a reasonable option for you I may consider still locking them in a coop at night.
Now that you know a little bit about my set up, lets discuss what I LOVE and what I DO NOT LOVE about free ranging my birds.
- They eat less feed – For the most part my birds will come down from roosting in the early morning and eat a little feed I leave out for them. They will spend the remainder of the day roaming the property eating all sorts of things from grass to bugs and small critters. They come back in the evening hours and take a few more bites and head up to their posts for the night. However, since I want my birds to produce at optimal capacity I can rest easy I supplement their diet by using Nutrena’s Egg Producer layer feed which is formulated perfectly to balance the diet of free ranging birds.
- Less need for Grit – When chickens can roam around and pick up sand, small rocks and pebbles they will not need grit that you would purchase at a retail store and offer in a coop setting. Grit and or “natural” rocks and pebbles aid the chicken in breaking down ingredients that they consume during the day. It is how they manage to start breaking down food without teeth!
- Insect control – Chickens and other fowl are wonderful at keeping bugs under control. They will eat most any type of bug. Anytime I am in the yard working, my ladies always flock to me knowing I will turn over a rock or a stump and they will have a buffet of all types of crawly critters. I even see them roaming the pastures scratching through horse and goat manure – YUCK, I know – but this is actually good for me and the other animals because they are eating fly larvae! I spend my life battling flies with livestock and chickens are great at taking care of them at the source while ducks seem to be excellent at catching flies right out of the air!
- Control of other pests – In case it is still a mystery, chickens are the closest living relative to the T-rex. If you have ever spent much time watching your birds you may have noticed that they truly love “the hunt.” They are always carefully watching for their next meal while they scratch around and forage. I have witnessed my birds chase down and corner mice and small snakes. They are almost as good as my barn cats!!! Not to say that they keep the mouse population 100% at bay since typically mice are out at night and chickens are mostly blind in the dark, but for the mouse who makes a mistake and comes out in the day light, they are fair game and a welcome challenge for your birds. Given the opportunity, chickens will keep all kinds of unwanted pests away from your farm.
- More active and over all healthier birds – Since I started free ranging I have never had an overweight chicken. Even my bigger breeds like my Brahmas tend to stay quite fit because they get plenty of exercise roaming around the farm all day. They stay healthier because they are not living in close quarters and are at less risk of catching illnesses they may be exposed to in a coop setting. If I have a bird get sick its typically one bird and most of the time I can catch it and quarantine that individual to treat her as opposed to having to treat the whole flock. Considering that most medications on the market today have a withdraw period where eggs must be tossed. Treating a lone individual is much more convenient than having to treat my entire flock and buy eggs from the store.
- Less space required in coop – When chickens are living in a coop 24-7 you must have a minimum of 4 square feet per bird of living space in the coop and even more so in a run. Some town and city ordinances will dictate how much space your birds need in a coop. However, if they are roaming free all day and their only coop activities are laying eggs, eating feed and sleeping, you can typically get away with a little less space in the coop itself. Most birds prefer 1-2 feet of roosting space but in my experience they tend to clump together and unless you have really big chickens, 2 feet is quite a bit of space on a roosting bar.
- Shade – If your birds are able to free range they will find shaded areas, bushes and cool dirt to lounge in during hot summer days. If they are in a coop full time make sure that the run area and coop have some shade to get out of the sun.
- Predators – Chickens are fair game for A LOT of different kinds of predators. At night they are easy targets for raccoons, opossum, weasels, fox, coyotes, bears and MANY more night dwelling critters depending on your geography. In my experience raccoons have been the biggest culprit at night. I went three years without ever having a problem but once they found my flock I was devastated over a period of two weeks despite my efforts to catch the little buggers. My Great Pyrenees were the only thing that stopped them from coming but unfortunately this was after I lost over half my flock VERY quickly. They are also fair game for many daytime predators including hawks, eagles, sometimes fox (during pupping season) and most of all domestic pets. If your neighbors have dogs that roam free, be extremely careful with loose chickens. Even the friendliest dog can be triggered into prey drive by a running chicken.
- Egg hunting – When I first started free ranging I felt like I was on an Easter Egg hunt every day! This got quite frustrating for a while. It seemed like once I learned their “go to” laying spots they would change it up on me. I once found over two dozen eggs nestled in some weeds under a tree in my pasture. Eventually I figured out how to outsmart them. I keep multiple highly desirable laying spots in my barn and always keep a wooden or plastic egg in the nest. Since chickens have a natural instinct to want to clutch up eggs before they start sitting on a nest this method works for me MOST of the time. I am not saying that once in a while I do not have a rogue chicken start laying somewhere funky (like in my goat’s water trough) but usually this is a rare occurrence. I can remedy it most times by “sacrificing” a few eggs and leaving them in the nest to trigger those clutching instincts again. Just make sure you mark those eggs with a sharpie so you do not accidentally eat them later as I assure you they will not be fresh.
- Eating unwanted plants (gardens, flowers, herbs, etc.) – If you or your neighbor have a garden and your chickens find it they will definitely capitalize on a free meal. They will also eat some flower pedals and herbs if you are not careful. Giving your birds produce from the house entices them to seek out this kind of treat and will create an even higher drive to get into a garden. If you want to free range and have a garden – chicken proof it – as soon as possible
- Making a mess and scratching in landscaped areas – Chickens LOVE to scratch up holes and dust in them. If you have a perfectly landscaped yard then your chickens are going to upset you if they are given freedom. Keep this in mind when making your decision.
- Manure –
- Stepping in it – Your chickens will poop where ever they please. Keep this in mind when making your choices. The more space you have for them to roam the less messy your yard will be. However, even with my 5 acre farm I still step in chicken poo fairly regularly.
- Ability to collect, compost and use manure and bedding as fertilizer. If your birds are in the coop with bedding you can easily clean that out, compost it and use it like liquid gold on your garden and yard. If your birds are free ranging you will miss out on that opportunity because their manure will already be spread all over your yard and maybe not where you want it!!
- Noisy when needing to be in coop – Before I got my livestock guard dogs, I would typically lock up my chickens when I went away for a weekend or if I had something going on where I felt like they may not be safe. Once they are used to free ranging, they HATE being locked up and they will definitely put up a fuss and make sure you know about their displeasure. If noise is an issue with your neighbors – they will not appreciate a newly locked up chicken.
- Eating harmful stuff – When free ranging, chickens can pick up and eat things that may not be desirable. Keep in mind that if they are free to roam take up any kind of pest poison (mouse, slug, ant… etc.). Even though it may not harm your bird, you do not want those poisons in your eggs! Same goes for chemicals you put on your yard. If you are throwing down weed killer or fertilizer on your yard keep that in mind as your birds forage around and potentially eat that grass it is not going to lead to the healthiest eggs for your family.
I have attempted to raise chickens in coops, totally free ranged and free ranged during the day while locking them up in a coop at night. I have had success with overall production in every scenario but have to manage them differently in each situation. It is my belief that there are pros and cons to each choice and you have to make decisions based on what is best for you, best for your birds and which management style is most realistic for your farm or hobby yard.
Keeping Mosquitoes and Other Biting Insects at Bay
Chickens make a delicious dinner but not only people enjoy dining on them. Raccoons, opossums, and other furry or feathery predators kill and eat them with enthusiasm.
Most predators work the night shift when sleeping chickens are nearly comatose and easy to snatch. Wise owners secure doors, windows, and pop holes at dusk. If predators can’t access chickens they can’t kill them.
Unfortunately, a closed door won’t exclude blood loving mosquitoes, gnats, and other insects.
They can’t easily bite through thick feathers but fleshy combs and wattles are blood rich and targeted. A few insect bites won’t kill a chicken but constant biting drains blood, introduces possible diseases, and pesters birds trying to sleep.
Hungry mosquitoes don’t limit their hunt to chickens. They also relish human blood and swarms of the pests cruising around the coop make life miserable for both hens and people. Reducing their numbers makes life more comfortable for both the birds and their owners.
Fogging the coop area with insecticides will kill bugs but there are better ways of reducing their abundance without using toxic chemicals. A three-pronged approach will put a big dent in insect numbers.
REDUCING SKEETER REPRODUCTION
Female mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water. Within 48 hours they hatch into larvae that mature into adults in another week to ten days. Newly emerged female mosquitoes are biters that require a protein rich blood meal to produce eggs for the next generation. Males are content feeding on nectar.
Mosquitoes can’t reproduce without standing water. Chicken keepers often carelessly leave water filled containers in the yard and chicken run. Fount type waterers and buckets can breed mosquitoes. So, will water filled toys, trash, old tires, and anything else that holds moisture. Even an old can will produce hundreds of biting skeeters.
The solution is simple. Drain everything that holds water. Buckets and fonts chickens need to drink from should be emptied at least every couple of days and refilled with clean fresh water. Waterers that allow chickens to drink from tiny spouts probably won’t breed mosquitoes and may be the best choice in buggy areas. Gutters are notorious for holding puddles of rain water that produce mosquitoes. Make sure they drain completely after each rain. Rain barrels that store gutter water are handy but should have tight fitting lids with netting covered holes to exclude laying mosquitoes.
Insects don’t respect property lines. Encouraging neighbors to keep their containers drained will help reduce numbers throughout the area.
ENCOURAGING MOSQUITO PREDATORS
Bats, many birds, toads, fish, and frogs all love dining on insects. Welcoming them to the yard will reduce mosquito numbers. Goldfish love eating larvae and a few stocked in tanks that can’t be drained will rid them of larvae. Creating damp dark places in the garden welcomes toads to move in. They are effective mosquito eaters. Bats, swallows, swifts, and many other birds devour skeeters. Although they prefer roosting in hollow trees often they’ll occupy special houses easily made at home or bought from garden supply stores.
EXCLUDING SKEETERS FROM THE COOP
Raccoons easily rip standard mosquito screening but can’t force their way through stout wire. With mosquitoes, it’s just the reverse. They cruise right through the heavy-duty wire that keeps out the racoons but can’t penetrate insect screening. The solution is simple-install double wire barriers over each coop window. Place raccoon proof heavy wire on the outside of windows and mosquito screening inside. This lets cool summer breezes enter the coop while keeping both insects and mammals at bay. Mosquito netting is made of nylon or aluminum and can be purchased in rolls from hardware stores. It is easy to cut it with heavy duty scissors and staple it to the inside of windows.
It’s nearly impossible to completely eliminate mosquitoes, gnats, and other biting insects from a chicken coop or run, but diligently eliminating standing water, encouraging insect predators, and double screening coop windows will make life more pleasant for both hens and their owners.
The warmer than average winter temps we enjoyed the past few years are taking revenge on our backyards. High tick populations are the result. Besides being pesky, the risk of Lyme disease contraction is reason for concern. One study recently conducted in Connecticut showed that nearly 40 percent of ticks tested this year have Lyme disease bacteria, according to an article recently published in The Day. In addition, ticks are simply out for blood- and are host neutral. Meaning, your chickens may get ticks, and be exposed to Lyme bacteria, too.
But birds eat bugs, right? When Lyme disease was realized as serious concern for humans in 1992, Vassar College in New York conducted a study to review the case for Guinea Fowl and reducing Lyme disease risk. After all, the loud, shrieking bird consumes a diet that’s 90% insects! They assessed the impact guinea fowl would have on tick densities in backyards over the course of a year. It was determined that guinea fowl do reduce the amount of adult ticks found in backyards, but, unfortunately, didn’t reduce the amount of nymphal (young) ticks- the main connection to Lyme disease. If you raise chickens, they’ll eat the ticks, too – just not as much as their rock-star cousin, the Guinea.
So what’s a chicken lady to do? Well, because chickens are a host to ticks, too, we recommend a multi-angle approach to take care of ticks to protect your flock and your family, here are some quick tips to get you started:
Are you a new chick owner? Then this guide is for you!
Chicks thrive in ideal conditions, so consider these tips for getting started:
- Heat: Suspend a warm bulb about a foot above the brooder floor for warmth – and have a second bulb on hand in case one burns out. Keep temps in the brooder about 90-95 degrees F for the first week, decreasing about 5 degrees per week. Raise the light as chicks grow.
- Environment: Be sure your brooder is big enough so your chicks can move about comfortably. Keep it out of drafts. Stock tanks, plastic tubs and homemade brooders are a few good options. Do not allow the brooder to become wet or damp.
- Bedding: Pine wood shavings are ideal. Avoid straw and newspaper as these become slippery for chicks. Clean bedding daily.
- Water: Be sure clean, fresh water is always available. Dip chick beaks into water and let them drink 4-5 hours before introducing feed. Elevating the waterer a couple inches off the floor will help it stay clean and prevent bedding from contaminating it.
- Feed: Scatter feed on the brooder floor so chicks can find it at first. Then place in a feeder. Have chick starter feed available 24/7. Your chicks will eat just what they need. One chick will eat about 10 pounds of chick starter in its first weeks of life. There are some great options available when considering chick starter feeds.
As a poultry owner, you know how important it is to keep your birds healthy. By practicing biosecurity, you can help reduce the chances of your birds being exposed to animal diseases such as avian influenza (AI) or exotic Newcastle disease (END).
“Biosecurity” may not be a common household word. But, for poultry and bird owners it can spell the difference between health and disease. Practicing biosecurity can help keep disease away from your farm, and keep your birds healthy.
Recommendations provided by the USDA, for more information on this and other topics, visit www.ahls.usda.gov/.
It’s no surprise that the winter months can be as long and arduous for chickens, as they are for us. Gone are their days of roaming free in the sunshine, while scratching up treats and exploring new places. The warmth of the coop becomes the new norm during these cold months, and the diet might start to feel as repetitious as their daily winter schedule.
Although commercial feed is an important mainstay for winter chickens, ambitious owners sprout grain to give their flock a winter treat of greenery. Table scraps also add diet variety but be careful as wet soggy foods can dampen the coop litter and create odor.
Among the best table scraps for indoor feeding are small amounts of salad greens, pumpkin and squash seeds, and bits of vegetables, popcorn, and almost any other food that’s relatively dry. Only put in as much as the birds can clean up in a few minutes.
Chickens love a snack of scratch grain or cracked corn, but only a few handfuls daily are all a small flock should have. Too much grain causes chicken obesity! A NatureWise Scratch Block of compressed grain sold at feed stores and left in the coop helps to provide exercise and diversion as the birds gradually peck the blocks apart.
Perhaps the most important help a flock owner can give birds is space. Cramming hens together in winter guarantees squabbling, pecking, and other social problems. Four square feet of floor space per birds is an absolute minimum. The more room the better, and a coop that has an array of perches and roosts at different heights and angles gives the hens a place to exercise, while adding three dimensions to a coop.
So go ahead, add some variety to their winter lives and just keep reminding your feathered friends, Spring will be back…someday!